miercuri, 28 februarie 2018

Dhritarashtra said,


Dhritarashtra said, "How, O Sanjaya, did Alamvusha resist in combat the heroic son of Arjuna smiting many of our mighty car-warriors in battle? And how also did that slayer of hostile heroes, viz., the son of Subhadra, fight with Rishyasringa's son? Tell me all this in detail, exactly as it happened in that fight. What also did Bhima, that foremost of car-warriors, and the Rakshasa Ghatotkacha, and Nakula, and Sahadeva and the mighty car-warrior Satyaki, and Dhananjaya, do with my troops in battle? Tell me all this truly, O Sanjaya, for thou art skilled (in narration)."
Sanjaya said, "I will presently describe to thee, O sire, the awful battle that took place between that foremost of the Rakshasas and the son of Subhadra. I will also describe to thee the prowess that Arjuna put forth in battle, and Bhimasena the son of Pandu and Nakula, and Sahadeva, as also the warriors of thy army headed by Bhishma and Drona, all of whom fearlessly achieved wonderful feats of diverse kinds, Alamvusha, uttering loud shouts and repeatedly roaring at Abhimanyu, rushed impetuously against that mighty car-warrior in battle, saying, 'Wait, Wait'--Abhimanyu also, repeatedly roaring like a lion, rushed with at great force at that mighty bowman, viz., the son of Rishyasringa, who was an implacable foe of the former's sire. Soon then those two foremost of car-warriors, man and Rakshasa, on their cars, encountered each other, like a god and Danava. That best of Rakshasa were endued with powers of illusion, while Phalguni's son was acquainted with celestial weapons. Then Abhimanyu, O king, pierced Rishyasringa's son in that battle with three sharp shafts and once more with five. Alamvusha, also, excited with wrath, speedily pierced Abhimanyu in the chest with nine shafts like a guide piercing an elephant with hooks. Then, O Bharata, that wanderer of the night, endued with great activity, afflicted Arjuna's son in that combat with a thousand arrows. Then Abhimanyu excited with rage, pierced that prince of the Rakshasas in his wide chest
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with nine straight shafts of great sharpness. Piercing through his body these penetrated into his very vitals. And that best of Rakshasas, his limbs mangled by them, looked beautiful like a mountain overgrown with flowering Kinsukas. Bearing those shafts of golden wings on his body, that mighty prince of Rakshasas looked radiant like a mountain on fire. Then the vindictive son of Rishyasringa, inflamed with wrath, covered Abhimanyu, who was equal unto Mahendra himself, with clouds of winged arrows. Those sharp shafts resembling the rods of Yama himself, shot by him, pierced Abhimanyu through and entered the earth. And similarly the gold-decked arrows shot by Arjuna's son, piercing Alamvusha through, entered the earth. The son of Subhadra then, in that battle, with his straight shafts, obliged the Rakshasa to turn his back upon the field, like Sakra repulsing Maya in days of old. That scorcher of foes, the Rakshasa, then, thus repulsed and struck repeatedly by his adversary, exhibited his great powers of illusion by causing a thick darkness to set in. Then all the combatants there, O king, were covered by that darkness. Neither could Abhimanyu be seen, nor could friends be distinguished from foes in that battle. Abhimanyu, however, beholding that thick and awful gloom, invoked into existence. O son of Kuru's race, the blazing solar weapon. Thereupon, O king, the universe once more became visible. And thus he neutralised the illusion of that wicked Rakshasa. Then that prince of men, excited with wrath and endued with great energy, covered that foremost of Rakshasa in that battle with many straight shafts. Diverse other kinds of illusion were conjured up there by that Rakshasa. Conversant with all weapons, the son of Phalguni however, neutralised them all. The Rakshasa then, his illusions all destroyed, and himself struck with shafts, abandoned his car even there, and fled away in great fear. After that Rakshasa addicted to unfair fight had been thus vanquished, the son of Arjuna began to grind thy troops in battle, like a juice-blind prince of wild elephants agitating a lake overgrown with lotus. 1 Then Bhishma the son of Santanu, beholding his troops routed, covered Subhadra's son with a thick shower of arrows. Then many mighty car-warriors of the Dhartarashtra army, standing in a ring round that single hero, began to strike him forcibly with their shafts. That hero then, who resembled his sire in prowess and who was equal to Vasudeva in valour and might,--that foremost of all wielders of weapons,--achieved diverse feats in that battle that were worthy of both his sire and maternal uncle. Then the heroic Dhananjaya, excited with wrath and desirous of rescuing his son, arrived at the spot where the latter was slaughtering thy troops as he came along. And similarly, O king, thy sire Devavrata in that battle approached Partha like Rahu approaching the sun. 2 Then thy sons, O monarch, supported by cars,
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elephants, and steeds, surrounded Bhishma in that battle and protected him from every side. And so also the Pandavas, O king, clad in mail and surrounding Dhananjaya, engaged in fierce battle, O bull of Bharata's race. Then Saradwat's son (Kripa), O king, pierced Arjuna who was staying in front of Bhishma, with five and twenty shafts. Thereupon, like a tiger attacking an elephant, Satyaki, approaching Kripa, pierced him with many whetted shafts from desire of doing what was agreeable to the Pandavas. Gautama in return, excited with wrath, quickly pierced him of Madhu's race in the chest with nine arrows winged with the feathers of the Kanka bird. Sini's grandson also, excited with wrath, and forcibly drawing his bow, quickly sped at him an arrow capable of taking his life. The fiery son of Drona, however, excited with wrath, cut in twain that arrow as it coursed impetuously towards Kripa, resembling Indra's bolt in effulgence. Thereupon that foremost of car-warriors, viz., Sini's grandson, abandoning Gautama, rushed in battle towards Drona's son like Rahu in the firmament against the Moon. Drona's son, however, O Bharata, cut Satyaki's bow in twain. After his bow had thus been cut off, the former began to strike the latter with his shafts. Satyaki then, taking up another bow capable of bearing a great strain and slaughtering the foe, struck Drona's son, O king, in the chest and arms with six shafts. Pierced therewith and feeling great pain, for a moment he was deprived of his senses, and he sat down on the terrace of his car, catching hold of his flag-staff. Regaining his consciousness then, the valiant son of Drona, excited with rage afflicted him of Vrishni's race in that battle, with one long shaft. That shaft, piercing Sini's grandson through, entered the earth like a vigorous young snake entering its hole in the season of spring. And with another broad-headed arrow, Drona's son in that battle cut off the excellent standard of Satyaki. And having achieved this feat he uttered a leonine roar. And once more, O Bharata, he covered his adversary with a shower of fierce shafts like the clouds, O king covering the Sun after summer is past, Satyaki also, O monarch, baffling that arrowy shower, soon covered the son of Drona with diverse showers of arrows That slayer of hostile heroes, viz., the grandson of Sini, freed from that arrowy shower like the Sun from the clouds, began to scorch the son of Drona (with his energy). Swelling with rage the mighty Satyaki once more covered his foe with a thousand arrows and uttered a loud shout. Beholding his son then thus afflicted like the Moon by Rahu, the valiant son of Bharadwaja rushed towards the grandson of Sini. Desirous, O king, of rescuing, his son who was afflicted by the Vrishni hero, Drona, in that great battle, pierced the latter with a shaft of exceeding sharpness. Satyaki then, abandoning the mighty car-warrior Aswatthaman, pierced Drona himself in that battle with twenty arrows of exceeding sharpness. Soon after, that scorcher of foes and mighty car-warrior, viz., Kunti's son of immeasurable soul, excited with wrath, rushed in that battle against Drona. Then Drona and Partha encountered each other in fierce combat like the planets Budha and Sukra,
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[paragraph continues] O king, in the firmament. 1


254:1 The Bengal reading vanya-nagendra is better than the Bombay reading gandha-nagendra.
254:2 In Hindu mythology, solar eclipses are caused by Rahu's attempts at swallowing the Sun.
256:1 Budha is Mercury, and Sukra is Venus.

vineri, 23 februarie 2018



De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă
Imaginea 1 - Neuron – Desen de Santiago Ramón y Cajal a unor neuroni din cerebelul porumbelului. (A) - exemplu de celule Purkinje bipolare, (B) - exemplu de celule granulare, multipolare.
Neuronii sunt o clasă de celule specifice pentru sistemul nervos. Neuronul este o celulă adaptată la recepționarea și transmiterea informației, unitatea elementară (celulară), embriologică, anatomică, funcțională, trofică și metabolică a sistemului nervos. Conceptul de neuroni, ca unitate principală a sistemului nervos a fost introdusă de anatomistul spaniol Santiago Ramón y Cajal. El a arătat ca neuronii sunt celule individuale care comunică între ele. O contribuție fundamentală la cunoașterea celulei nervoase în stare normală și patologică a constituit-o la vremea sa grandioasa monografie a lui Gheorghe Marinescu, La cellule nerveuse (Ed. Doin, Paris, 1909).
Componentele unui neuron:
a. dendrite
b. pericarion
c. nucleu
d. conul de emergență al axonului
e. teacă de mielină
f. celulă Schwann
g. strangulație Ranvier
h. butoni terminali
Neuronii au mărimi cuprinse între 100-200 μm și 4-8 μm. Au un corp celular (soma) și un număr mare de prelungiri.
Din punct de vedere funcțional neuronul se împarte în trei regiuni:
  • regiunea conductoare leagă regiunea receptoare de cea efectoare. Ea este formată din porțiunea axonului de la locul în care acesta iese din corpul celular hilul axonic până la arborizația sa. Aici au loc potențialele de acțiune prin sumarea potențialelor locale.
  • regiunea efectoare, informația (potențialul de acțiune) este recodificată aici sub formă chimică prin neurotransmițători și transmisă prin sinapsa regiunii receptoare a următorului neuron.


Diagrama unui motoneuron cu axon cu teacă de milină tipic vertebratelor.
Neuronii au de obicei un singur nucleu mic, dispus central, care prezintă unul sau doi nucleoli. Aici este sintetizată o cantitate ridicată de ARN, iar cromatina este dispersată.
Ribozomii sunt asociați reticulului endoplasmatic rugos și formează substanța tigroidă (corpusculii Nissl). Corpii Nissl se găsesc în corpul celular și în porțiunea inițială a dendritelor, dar niciodată în axon. Ei au rol în metabolismul neuronal.
Reticulul endoplasmatic neted are rol în reglarea nivelului de ioni de calciu din neuron.
Microfilamentele, neurofilamentele și microtubulii formează citoscheletul neuronului. Trebuie menționat că neurofilamentele (asociate formează neurofibrilele) au rol mecanic, de susținere și în conducerea influxului nervos.
Mitocondriile se găsesc în corpul celular, dar majoritatea se concentrează în butonii terminali ai axonului, furnizând energie (sub formă de ATP) pentru transmiterea semnalului la nivelul sinaptic și pentru sinteza unor neurotransmițători.
Corpul celular și dendritele sunt învelite într-o membrană plasmatică, neurilema, cu o importanță deosebită în recepționarea și transmiterea semnalelor prin canalele ionice. Axonii prezintă axolema, care este învelită de trei teci: teaca de mielină (adera intim la axolema, rol de izolator electric), teaca Schwann (contine celule schwan) și teaca Henle (permeabilitate si rezistenta). Teaca de mielină este întreruptă la intervale de 80-600 μ de noduri Ranvier.


Chemical synapse schema cropped.jpg
După numărul de prelungiri:
  • neuroni multipolari, cu număr mare de prelungiri. De obicei au o formă stelată, cu nucleu mare și sferic, situat central. Pot fi neuroni senzitivi.
  • neuroni bipolari, cu două ramificații la extremități. Au formă fusiformă, iar nucleul este ovalar și de obicei excentric. Se găsesc de exemplu în retină.
  • neuroni pseudounipolari, cu o prelungire în formă de T: prelungirea inițială se desparte în două. Sunt sferici, cu nucleu mare, localizat central. Se găsesc în ganglionii rahidieni sau ganglionii spinali.
După funcționare:
  • neuroni senzitivi(receptori), care primesc excitațiile de la stimulii mediului extern - neuronii olfactivi, receptori termici, receptorii presiunii și receptorii durerii. Astfel de functii indeplinesc neuronii pseudounipolari si cei bipolari.
  • neuroni motori(efectori), care transmit impulsul nervos prin axon pană la organele efectoare (muschi, glande). Majoritatea neuronilor motori sunt multipolari.
  • neuroni de asociație(intercalari), care preiau informatia de la neuronii senzitivi, o analizeaza si elaboreaza o reactie de raspuns, pe care o transmit neuronilor motori.
  • neuroni secretori - neuronii hipotalamusului, care secretă neurohormoni.

Proprietăți funcționale

Excitabilitatea este proprietatea de a intra în activitate sub acțiunea unui stimul. Membrana joacă un rol esențial prin canalele sale ionice care se deschid sau se închid în funcție de modificările de energie din preajma membranei.
Conductibilitatea este proprietatea de a conduce impulsurile. Această conducere se realizează diferit în fibrele mielinice și amielinice, cele mielinice fiind mai rapide (60–120 m/s în cele mai groase, 3–14 m/s în cele mai subțiri; iar în cele amielinice 0.5–2 m/s).
Degenerescența se referă la degradarea neuronului în condiții de lezare serioasă a axonului.
Regenerarea este proprietatea de a se reface după anumite lezări.
Activitatea sinaptică se referă la codarea chimică a informației și transmiterea acesteia prin sinapse.


Neuronii comunică între ei prin sinapse. Axonul terminal al unei celule nervoase intră în contact cu terminația dendritică a unui alt neuron. Neuronii precum celulele Purkinje pot avea peste 1000 de ramificații dendritice, făcând conexiuni cu alte zeci de mii de celule.
Sinapsele pot fi excitatorii sau inhibitorii.
În creierul uman există un număr imens de neuroni,formând un număr imens de sinapse. Fiecare neuron din cele 16-18 miliarde(deși unii specialiști susțin existenta a 40 de miliarde,sau și mai exagerat,100 de miliarde) are în medie 7 000 de conexiuni sinaptice cu ceilalți neuroni,sau pană la 10 mii de sinapse.Din păcate,din diferite motive,numărul sinapselor nu e aproximabil,ci doar speculabil.

joi, 8 februarie 2018

"The Holy One said

(Bhagavad Gita Chapter VI)

"The Holy One said,--'Regardless of fruit of action, he that performs the actions which should be performed, is a renouncer and devotee, and not one who discards the (sacrificial) fire, nor one that abstains from action. 1 That which has been called renunciation, know that, O son of Pandu, to be devotion, since nobody can be a devotee who has not renounced (all) resolves. 2 To the sage desirous of rising to devotion, action is said to be the means; and when he has risen to devotion, cessation of action is said to be the means. When one is no longer attached to the objects of the senses, nor to actions, and when one renounces all resolves, then is. One said to have risen to devotion. One should raise (his ) self by self; one should not degrade (his) self; for one's own self is one's friend, and one's own self is one's enemy. 3 To him (only) who has subjugated his self by his self is self a friend. But to him who has not subjugated his self, his self behaves inimically like an enemy. The soul of one who has subjugated his self and who is in the enjoyment of tranquillity, is steadily fixed (on itself) amid cold and heat, pleasure and pain, and also honour and dishonour. That ascetic is said to be devoted whose mind is satisfied with knowledge and experience, who hath no affection, who hath subjugated his senses, and to whom a sod, a stone and gold are alike. He, who views equally well-wishers, friends, foes, strangers that are indifferent to him, those who take part with both sides, those who are objects of aversion, those who are related (to him), those who are good, and those who are wicked, is distinguished (above all others). A devotee should always fix his mind on contemplation, remaining in a secluded place alone, restraining both mind and body, without expectations (of any kind), and without concern (with anything). 4 Erecting his seat immovably on a clean spot, not too high nor too low, and spreading over it a piece of cloth, a deer-skin, or blades of Kusa grass, and there seated on that seat, with mind fixed on one object, and restraining the functions of the heart and the senses, one should practise contemplation for the purification of self. Holding body, head, and neck
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even, unmoved and steady, and casting his glance on the tip of his nose, and without looking about in any of the different directions, with mind in tranquillity, freed from fear, observant of the practices of Brahmacharins, restraining the mind, with heart fixed on me, the devotee should sit down, regarding me as the object of his attainment. Thus applying his soul constantly, the devotee whose heart is restrained, attains to that tranquillity which culminates in final absorption and assimilation with me. Devotion is not one's, O Arjuna, who eateth much, nor one's who doth not eat at all; nor one's who is addicted to too much sleep, nor one's who is always awake, devotion that is destructive of misery is his who is temperate in food and amusements, who duly exerts himself temperately in all his works, and who is temperate in sleep and vigils. When one's heart, properly restrained, is fixed on one's own self, then, indifferent to all objects of desire, he is one called a devotee. 1 As a lamp in a windless spot doth not flicker, even that is the resemblance declared of a devotee whose heart hath been restrained and who applieth his self to abstraction. That (condition) in which the mind, restrained by practice of abstraction, taketh rest, in which beholding self by self, one is gratified within self; in which one experienceth that highest felicity which is beyond the (sphere of the) senses and which the understanding (only) can grasp, and fixed on which one never swerveth from the truth; acquiring which one regards no other acquisition greater than it, and abiding in which one is never moved by even the heaviest sorrow; that (Condition) should be known to be what is called devotion in which there is a severance of connection with pain. That devotion should be practised with perseverance and with an undesponding heart. 2 Renouncing all desires without exception that are born of resolves, restraining the group of the senses on all sides by mind alone, one should, by slow degrees, become quiescent (aided) by (his) understanding controlled by patience, and then directing his mind to self should think of nothing. 3 Wheresoever the mind, which is (by nature) restless and unsteady, may run, restraining it from those, one should direct it to self alone. Indeed, unto such a devotee whose mind is in tranquillity, whose passions have been suppressed, who hath become one with Brahma and who is free from sin, the highest felicity cometh (of his own accord). Thus applying his soul constantly (to abstraction), the devotee, freed from sin, easily obtaineth that highest happiness, viz., with Brahma. He who hath devoted his self to abstraction casting an equal eye everywhere, beholdeth his self in all creatures and all creatures in his self. Unto him who beholdeth me in everything and
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beholdeth everything in me. I am never lost and he also is never lost to me. 1 He who worshippeth me as abiding in all creatures, holding yet that all is one, is a devotee, and whatever mode of life he may lead, he liveth in me. That devotee, O Arjuna, who casteth an equal eye everywhere, regarding all things as his own self and the happiness and misery of others as his own, is deemed to be the best.'
"Arjuna said, 'This devotion by means of equanimity which thou hast declared, O slayer of Madhu,--on account of restlessness of the mind I do not see its stable presence. 2 O Krishna, the mind is restless, boisterous, perverse, and obstinate. Its restraint I regard to be as difficult of accomplishment as the restraint of the wind.'
"The Holy One said, 'Without doubt, O thou of mighty arms the mind is difficult of subjugation and is restless. With practice, however, O son of Kunti, and with the abandonment of desire, it can be controlled. It is my belief that by him whose mind is not restrained, devotion is difficult of acquisition. But by one whose mind is restrained and who is assiduous, it is capable of acquisition with the aid of means.'
"Arjuna said, 'Without assiduity, though endued with faith, and with mind shaken off from devotion, what is the end of him, O Krishna, who hath not earned success in devotion? Fallen off from both, 3 is he lost like a separated cloud or not, being as he is without refuge, O thou of mighty arms, and deluded on the path leading to Brahma? This my doubt, O Krishna, it behoveth thee to remove without leaving anything. Besides thee, no dispeller of this doubt is to be had. 4
"The Holy One said, 'O son of Pritha, neither here, nor hereafter, doth ruin exist for him, since none, O sire, who performs good (acts) comes by an evil end. Attaining to the regions reserved for those that perform meritorious acts and living there for many many years, he that hath fallen off from devotion taketh birth in the abode of those that art pious and endued with prosperity, or, he is born even in the family of devotees endued with intelligence. Indeed, a birth such as this is more difficult of acquisition in this world. There in those births he obtaineth contact with that Brahmic knowledge which was his in his former life; and from that point he striveth again, O descendant of Kuru, towards perfection. And although unwilling, he still worketh on in consequence of that same former practice of his. Even one that enquireth of devotion riseth above (the fruits of) the Divine Word.- 5 Striving with great efforts, the devotee, cleaned of all his sins, attaineth to perfection after many births,
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and then reacheth the supreme goal. The devotee is superior to ascetics engaged in austerities; he is esteemed to be superior to even the man of knowledge. The devotee is superior to those that are engaged in action. Therefore, become a devotee, O Arjuna. Even amongst all the devotees, he who, full of faith and with inner self resting on me, worshippeth me, is regarded by me to be the most devout."


67:1 Renouncer and devotee Sannyasin and Yogin.
67:2 Which spring from desire.
67:3 Self in this sloka is explained by the commentators as mind. The mind, unless controlled, cannot lead to devotion.
67:4 Chitta and atma are explained by the commentators as "mind and body."
68:1 Fixed on one's own self, i.e., withdrawn from all objects of sense. Thus Sankara.
68:2 Nischayena is explained by Sankara as equivalent to "with preservence" or steadily. Sreedhara explains it as equal to "with the certitude of knowledge acquired by instruction."
68:3 Mriti-grahitaya Buddhya is, as explained by Sankara and others "with understanding controlled by patience," K. T. Telang renders it "with firm resolve coupled with courage."
69:1 i.e. I am always visible to him, and he too is always within my sight and I am always kind to him.
69:2 i.e. how its stable existence may be secured, the mind being by nature ever restless.
69:3 Fallen off from both, i.e., from heaven (through work) and absorption into Brahma (through devotion).
69:4 Without leaving anything, i.e., entirely.
69:5 The Divine-Word i.e., the Vedas. So great is the efficacy of devotion that one merely enquiring of it transcends him who conforms to the rites of the Vedas.

vineri, 2 februarie 2018

"Sanjaya said


"Dhritarashtra said.---"Thou art intelligent, O Sanjaya, and acquainted with the truth (about everything). Thou hast duly given a description of the island in brief. Tell us now of the island in detail. Tell us now of the dimension of the expanse of land that lies in the portion looking like a hare. Thou mayst then speak of the portion resembling peepul tree."
Vaisampayana said,--"Thus addressed by the king, Sanjaya began to say.
"Sanjaya said,--'Stretching from east to west, are these six mountains that are equal 2 and that extend from the eastern to the western ocean. They are Himavat, Hemakuta, that best of mountains called Nishadha, Nila abounding with stones of lapis lazuli, Sweta white as the moon, and the mountains called Sringavat composed of all kinds of metals. 3 These are the six mountains, O king, which are always the resorts of Siddhas and Charanas. The space lying between each of these measures a thousand Yojanas, and thereon are many delightful kingdoms. And these divisions are called Varshas, O Bharata. In all those kingdoms reside creatures of diverse species. This (the land where we are) is in the Varsha that is called after Bharata. Next to it (northwards) is the Varsha called after Himavat. The land that is beyond Hemakuta is called Harivarsha, South of the Nila range and on the north of the Nishadha is a mountain, O king, called Malyavat that stretches from east to west. Beyond Malyavat northwards is the mountain called Gandhamadana. 4 Between these two (viz., Malyavat and Gandhamadana) is a globular mountain called Meru made of gold. Effulgent as the morning sun, it is like fire without smoke. 5 It is eighty-four thousand Yojanas high, and, O king, its depth also is eighty-four Yojanas. It standeth
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bearing the worlds above, below and transversely. Besides Meru are situated, O lord, these four islands, viz., Bhadraswa, and Ketumala, and Jamvudwipa otherwise called Bharata, and Uttar-Kuru which is the abode of persons who have achieved the merit of righteousness. The bird Sumukha, the son of Suparna, beholding that all the birds on Meru were of golden plumage, reflected that he should leave that mountain inasmuch as there was no difference between the good, middling, and bad birds. The foremost of luminaries, the sun, always circumambulates Meru, as also the moon with (his) attendant constellation, and the Wind-god too. The mountain, O king, is endued with celestial fruits and flowers, and it is covered all over with mansions made of furnished gold. There, on that mountain, O king, the celestials, the Gandharvas, the Asuras, and the Rakshasas, accompanied by the tribes of Apsaras, always sport. There Brahman, and Rudra, and also Sakra the chief of the celestials, assembled together, performed diverse kinds of sacrifices with plentiful gifts. Tumvuru, and Narada and Viswavasu, and the Hahas and the Huhus, repairing thither, adored the foremost of the celestials with diverse hymns. The high-souled seven Rishis, and Kasyapa the lord of creatures, repair thither, blessed be thou, on every parva day. 1 Upon the summit of that mountain, Usanas, otherwise called the Poet, sporteth with the Daityas (his disciples). 2 The jewels and gems (that we see) and all the mountains abounding in precious stones are of Meru. Therefrom a fourth part is enjoyed by the holy Kuvera. Only a sixteenth part of that wealth he giveth unto men. On the northern side of Meru is a delightful and excellent forest of Karnikaras, covered with the flowers of every season, 3 and occupying a range of hills. There the illustrious Pasupati himself, the creator of all things, surrounded by his celestial attendants and accompanied by Uma, sporteth bearing a chain of Karnikara flowers (on his neck) reaching down to his feet, and blazing with radiance with his three eyes resembling three risen suns. Him Siddhas truthful in speech, of excellent vows and austere ascetic penances, can behold. Indeed, Maheswara is incapable of being seen by persons of wicked conduct. From the summit of that mountain, like a stream of milk, O ruler of men, the sacred and auspicious Ganga, otherwise called Bhagirathi, adored by the most righteous, of universal form and immeasurable and issuing out with terrific noise, falleth with impetuous force on the delightful lake of Chandramas4 Indeed that sacred lake, like an ocean, hath been formed by Ganga herself. (While leaping from the mountains), Ganga, incapable of being supported by even the mountains, was held for a hundred thousand years by the bearer of Pinaka
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on his head. 1 On the western side of Meru, O king, is Ketumala2 And there also is Jamvukhanda. Both are great seats of humanity, O king. 3 There, O Bharata, the measure of human life is ten thousand years. The men are all of a golden complexion, and the women are like Apsaras. And all the residents are without sickness, without sorrow, and always cheerful. The men born there are of the effulgence of melted gold. On the summits of Gandhamadana, Kuvera the lord of the Guhyakas, with many Rakshasas and accompanied by tribes of Apsaras, passeth his time in joy. Besides Gandhamadana there are many smaller mountains and hills. The measure of human life there is eleven thousand years. There, O king, the men are cheerful, and endued with great energy and great strength and the women are all of the complexion of the lotus and highly beautiful. Beyond Nila is (the Varsha called) Sweta, beyond Sweta is (the Varsha called) Hiranyaka. Beyond Hiranyaka is (the Varsha called) Airavata covered with provinces. The last Varsha in the (extreme) north and Bharata's Varsha in the (extreme) south are both, O king, of the form of a bow. These five Varshas (viz., Sweta, Hiranyaka, Elavrita, Harivarsha, and Haimavat-varsha) are in the middle, of which Elavrita exists in the very middle of all. Amongst these seven Varshas (the five already mentioned and Airavata and Bharata) that which is further north excels the one to its immediate south in respect of these attributes, viz., the period of life, stature, health, righteousness, pleasure, and profit. In these Varshas, O Bharata, creatures (though of diverse species) yet, live together. Thus, O king, is Earth covered with mountains. The huge mountains of Hemakuta are otherwise called Kailasa. There, O king, Vaisravana passeth his time in joy with his Guhyakas. Immediately to the north of Kailasa and near the mountains of Mainaka there is a huge and beautiful mountain called Manimaya endued with golden summits. Beside this mountain is a large, beautiful, crystal and delightful lake called Vindusaras with golden sands (on its beach). There king Bhagiratha, beholding Ganga (since) called after his own name, resided for many years. There may be seen innumerable sacrificial stakes made of gems, and Chaitya tree made of gold. It was there that he of a thousand eyes and great fame won (ascetic) success by performing sacrifices. There the Lord of all creatures, the eternal Creator of all the worlds, endued with supreme energy surrounded by his ghostly attendants, is adored. There Nara and Narayana, Brahman, and Manu, and Sthanu as the fifth, are (ever present). And there the celestial stream Ganga having three currents, 4 issuing out of the region of Brahman, first showed herself, and then dividing
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herself into seven streams, became Vaswokasara, Nalini, the sin-cleansing Saraswati, Jamvunadi, Sita, Ganga and Sindhu as the seventh. The Supreme Lord hath (himself) made the arrangement with reference to that inconceivable and celestial stream. It is there that 1 sacrifices have been performed (by gods and Rishis) on a thousand occasions after the end of the Yuga (when creation begins). As regards the Saraswati, in some parts (of her course) she becometh visible and in some parts not so. This celestial sevenfold Ganga is widely known over the three worlds. Rakshasas reside on Himavat, Guhyakas on Hemakuta, and serpents and Nagas on Nishadha, and ascetics on Gokarna. The Sweta mountains are said to be the abode of the celestial and the Asuras. The Gandharvas always reside on Nishadhas, and the regenerate Rishis on Nila. The mountains of Sringavat also are regarded as the resort of the celestials.
"'These then, O great king, are the seven Varshas of the world as they are divided. Diverse creatures, mobile 2 and immobile, are placed in them all. Diverse kinds of prosperity, both providential and human, are noticeable in them. They are incapable of being counted. Those desirous, however, of their own good believe (all this), I have now told thee of that delightful region (of land) of the form of a hare about which thou hadst asked me. At the extremities of that region are the two Varshas, viz., one on the north and the other on the south. Those two also have now been told to thee. Then again the two islands Naga-dwipa and Kasyapa-dwipa are the two ears of this region of the form of a hare. The beautiful mountains of Maleya, O king, having rocks like plates of copper, form another (prominent) part of Jamvudwipa that having its shape resembling a hare.'"


13:2 The Bombay text reads Varsha parvatas for parvatas samas.
13:3 For Pinaddha occurring in the Bengal texts, the Bombay edition reads Vichitra.
13:4 The Bengal texts add a line here which is properly omitted in the Bombay edition.
13:5 After the 10th occurs a line in the Bengal text which is evidently vicious.
14:1 Day of the full-moon and that of the new-moon.
14:2 The Bengal texts, except the Burdwan one, have divi for Daityas, of course, the latter reading is correct.
14:3 The Bombay text has Sarvatas (which is better) for Sarvata in the Bengal texts.
14:4 in the first line of 28, the Bengal texts read Sirasas (ablative) for Sikhhrat of the Bombay edition. In the last line of 29 also, the Bombay text has plavantiva-pravegena for the Bengal reading patatyajapravegena. No material difference of meaning arises if one or the other is accepted.
15:1 Alluding to the tradition of Siva's holding Ganga on his head and for which the great god is sometimes called Gangadhara.
15:2 This word occurs in various forms, Ketumala and Ketumali being two others.
15:3 The Bombay edition reads tu for cha after Jamvukhanda. The meaning becomes changed.
15:4 The sacred stream Ganga is believed to have three currents. In heaven the current is called Mandakini; on earth, it is called Ganga; and in the subterraneous world it is called Bhogavati.
16:1 The Bengal texts, excepting the Burdwan one, incorrectly read Sakram for Satram.
16:2 The correct reading is Gatimanti. Many of the Bengal texts incorrectly read matimanti, which is unmeaning.