sâmbătă, 26 mai 2018

Krishna said


"Sanjaya said, 'Hearing the twang, resembling the loud call of Death himself or the frightful peal of Indra's thunder, of Dhananjaya's bow, while he stretched it, that host of thine, O king, anxious with fear and exceedingly agitated, became like the waters of the sea with fishes and makaras within them, ruffled into mountain-like waves and lashed into fury by the hurricane that arises at the end of the Yuga. Then Dhananjaya, the son of Pritha, careered in battle in such a way that he was seen at the same time to be present in all directions, displaying his wonderful weapons. Indeed, so light-handed was the son of Pandu that we could not mark when he took out his shafts, O king, when he fixed them on the bow-string, when he stretched the bow, and when he let them off. Then the mighty-armed one, O king, excited with wrath, invoked into existence the invincible Aindra weapon, frightening all the Bharatas. Hundreds and thousands of blazing shafts of fiery mouths, inspired by mantras with the force of celestial weapons, flowed from it. With those shafts resembling fire or the rays of the sun, coursing with fierce impetuosity, the welkin became incapable of being

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gazed at, as if filled with flashing meteors. Then that darkness which had been caused by the Katirava with their arrows, which was incapable of being dispersed even in imagination by others, the son of Pandu, careering around and displaying his prowess, destroyed by means of those shafts of his that were inspired by means of mantras with the force of celestial weapons, like the sun himself speedily dispersing at dawn of day the darkness of night by means of his rays. Then the puissant Arjuna, with those blazing shafts of his, sucked the lives of thy warriors like the summer sun sucking with his hot rays the waters of tanks and lakes. Indeed, showers of shafts endued with the force of celestial weapons, (shot by Arjuna) covered the hostile army like the rays of the sun covering the earth. Other arrows of fierce energy, sped (by Dhananjaya), quickly entered the hearts of (hostile) heroes, like dear friends. Indeed, those brave warriors that came in that battle before Arjuna, all perished like insects approaching a blazing fire. Thus crushing the lives of his foes and their fame, Partha careered in that battle like Death in embodied form. Heads decked with diadems, massive arms, adorned with Angadas, and ears with ear-rings of the foes, Partha, cut off with his shafts. The arms, with spears, of elephant-riders; those, with lances, of horsemen; those, with shields, of foot-soldiers; those with bows, of car-warriors; and those, with whips and goads, of charioteers the son of Pandu cut off. Indeed, Dhananjaya looked resplendent with his shafts of blazing points that seemed to constitute his rays, like a blazing fire with incessant sparks and rising flames. The hostile kings, mustering all their resolution, could not even gaze at Dhananjaya, that foremost of all bearers of arms, that hero equal to the chief of the gods himself, that bull among men, seen at the same time in all directions on his car, scattering his mighty weapons, dancing in the tract of his car, and producing deafening sounds with his bowstring and palms, and resembling the midday sun of scorching rays in the firmament. Bearing his shafts of blazing points, the diadem-decked Arjuna looked beautiful like a mighty mass of rain-charged clouds in the season of rains decked with a rainbow. When that perfect flood of mighty weapons was set in motion by Jishnu, many bulls among warriors sank in that frightful and unfordable flood. Strewn with infuriated elephants whose trunks or tusks had been cut off, with steeds deprived of hoofs or necks, with cars reduced to pieces, with warriors having their entrails drawn out and others with legs or other limbs cut off, with bodies lying in hundreds and thousands that were either perfectly still or moving unconsciously, we beheld the vast field, on which Partha battled, resembled the coveted arena of Death, O king, enhancing the terrors of the timid, or like the sporting ground of Rudra when he destroyed creatures in days of old. Portions of the field, strewn with the trunks of elephants cut off with razor-headed arrows, looked as if strewn with snakes. Portions, again, covered with the cut-off heads of warriors, looked as if strewn with garlands of lotuses. Variegated with beautiful head-gear and crowns, Keyuras and Angadas and car-rings with coats of mail decked with gold, and with the trappings and other
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ornaments of elephants and steeds, and scattered over with hundreds of diadems, lying here and there, and the earth looked exceedingly beautiful like a new bride. Dhananjaya then caused a fierce and terrible river full of fearful objects and enhancing the fear of the timid, to flow resembling the Vaitarani itself. The marrow and fat (of men and animals) formed its mire. Blood formed its current. Full of limbs and bones, it was fathomless in depth. The hairs of creatures formed its moss and weeds. Heads and arms formed the stones on its shores. It was decked with standards and banners that variegated its aspect. Umbrellas and bows formed the waves. And it abounded with bodies of huge elephants deprived of life, and it teemed with cars that formed hundreds of rafts floating on its surface. And the carcases of countless steeds formed its banks. And it was difficult to cross in consequence of wheels and yokes and shafts and Akshas and Kuveras of cars, and spears and swords and darts and battle-axes and shafts looking like snakes. And ravens and kankas formed its alligators. And jackals, forming its Makaras, made in terrible. And fierce vultures formed its sharks. And it became frightful in consequence of the howls of jackals. And it abounded with capering ghosts and Pisachas and thousands of other kinds of spirits. And on it floated countless bodies of warriors destitute of life. Beholding that prowess of Arjuna whose visage then resembled that of the Destroyer himself, a panic, such as had never occurred before, possessed the Kurus on the field of battle. The son of Pandu, then, baffling with his weapons those of the hostile heroes, and engaged in achieving fierce feats, gave all to understand that he was a warrior of fierce feats. Then Arjuna transgressed all those foremost of car-warriors, like the midday sun of scorching rays in the firmament, no one amongst the creatures there could even look at him. The shafts issuing out of the bow Gandiva of that illustrious hero in that battle, seemed to us to resemble a row of cranes in the welkin. Baffling with his own the weapons of all those heroes, and showing by the terrible achievements in which he was engaged that he was a warrior of fierce feats. Arjuna, desirous of slaying Jayadratha, transgressed all those foremost of car-warriors, stupefying them all by means of his shafts. Shooting his shafts on all sides, Dhananjaya, having Krishna for his charioteer, presented a beautiful sight by careering with great speed on the field of battle. The shafts in the welkin, by hundreds and thousands, of that illustrious hero, seemed to course incessantly through the sky. We never could notice when that mighty bowman took out his shafts, when indeed, that son of Pandu aimed them, and when he let them off. Then, O king, filling all the points of the compass with his shafts and afflicting all the car-warriors in battle, the son of Kunti proceeded towards Jayadratha and pierced him with four and sixty straight arrows. Then the Kuru warriors, beholding the son of Pandu proceeded towards Jayadratha, all abstained from battle. In fact, those heroes became hopeless of Jayadratha's life. Every one amongst thy warriors that rushed in that fierce battle against the son of Pandu, had his body deeply pierced, O lord, with a shaft of Arjuna. The
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mighty car-warrior Arjuna, that foremost of victorious persons, with his shafts blazing as fire made thy army teem with headless trunks. 1 Indeed, O king, thus creating a perfect confusion in thy host consisting of four kinds of forces, the son of Kunti proceeded towards Jayadratha, And he pierced the son of Drona. with fifty shafts and Vrishasena with three. And the son of Kunti mildly struck Kripa with nine arrows, and he struck Salya with sixteen arrows and Karna with two and thirty. And piercing the ruler of the Sindhus then with four and sixty arrows, he uttered a leonine shout. The ruler of the Sindhus, however, thus pierced by the wielder of Gandiva with his arrows, became filled with rage and unable to brook it, like an elephant when pierced with the hook. Bearing the device of the boar on his banner, he quickly sped towards Phalguna's car many straight shafts equipped with vulturine feathers, resembling angry snakes of virulent poison, well-polished by the hands of the smith, and shot from his bow drawn to the fullest stretch. Then piercing Govinda with three shafts, he struck Arjuna with six. And then he pierced the steeds of Arjuna with eight arrows and his standard also with one. Then Arjuna, baffling the keen arrows sped by the ruler of the Sindhus, cut off at the same time, with a pair of shafts, the head of Jayadratha's driver and the well-decked standard also of Jayadratha. Its stay cut off and itself pierced and struck with arrows, that standard fell down like a flame of fire. Meanwhile, the sun was going down quickly. Janardana then quickly addressed the son of Pandu and said, 'Behold, O Partha, the ruler of the Sindhus hath, by six mighty and heroic car-warriors, been placed in their-midst! Jayadratha also, O mighty-armed one, is waiting there in fear! Without vanquishing those six car-warriors in battle, O bull among men, thou wilt never be able to slay the ruler of the Sindhus even if thou exertest thyself without intermission. I shall, therefore, resort to Yoga for shrouding the sun. Then the ruler of the Sindhus will (in consequence) behold the sun to have set. Desirous of life, O lord, through joy that wicked wight will no longer, for his destruction, conceal himself. Availing yourself of that opportunity, thou shouldst then, O best of the Kurus, strike him. Thou shouldst not give up the enterprise, thinking the sun to have really set.' Hearing these words, Vibhatsu replied unto Kesava, saying, 'Let it be so.' Then Krishna otherwise called Hari, possessed of ascetic powers, that lord of all ascetics, having taken recourse to Yoga, created that darkness. Thy warriors, O king, thinking the sun to have set were filled with delight at the prospect of Partha's laying down his life. Indeed, thy warriors, not seeing the sun, were filled with gladness. All of them stood, with heads thrown backwards. King Jayadratha also was in the same attitude. And while the ruler of the Sindhus was thus beholding the sun, Krishna, once more addressing Dhananjaya said these words, 'Behold, the heroic ruler of the Sindhus is now looking at the sun, casting off his fear of thee, O foremost one among

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the Bharatas! This is the hour, O mighty-armed one, for the slaughter of that wicked-souled wretch. Speedily cut off the head and make thy vow true.' Thus addressed by Kesava the valiant son of Pandu began to slaughter thy host with his arrows resembling the sun or fire in splendour. And he pierced Kripa with twenty arrows and Karna with fifty. And he struck Salya and Duryodhana each with six. And he pierced Vrishasena with eight arrows and the ruler of the Sindhus himself with sixty. And the mighty-armed son of Pandu, O king, deeply piercing with his arrows the other warriors of thy host, rushed against Jayadratha. Beholding him in their presence like a swelling fire with its tongue of flame outstretched, the protectors of Jayadratha were sorely puzzled. Then all the warriors, O king, desirous of victory bathed the son of Indra in that battle with torrents of arrows. Shrouded with incessant showers of arrows, the son of Kunti, that mighty-armed and unvanquished descendant of Kuru, became filled with rage. Then that tiger among men, viz., the son of Indra, desirous of slaughtering thy host, created a thick net of arrows. Then those warriors of thine, O king, thus slaughtered in battle by that hero, abandoned the ruler of the Sindhus in fear and fled away. And they fled away in such a manner that no two persons could be seen flying together. The prowess that we then beheld of Kunti's son was extremely wonderful. Indeed, the like of what that illustrious warrior then did had never been nor will ever be. Like Rudra himself slaughtering creatures, Dhananjaya slaughtered elephants and elephant-riders, horses and horse-riders, and (car-warriors and) car-drivers. I did not in that battle, O king, see a single elephant or steed or human warrior that was not struck with Partha's shafts. Their vision blurred by dust and darkness, thy warriors became perfectly cheerless and unable to distinguish one another. Urged on by fate and with their vital limbs cut open and mangled with shafts, they began to wander or, limp, or fall down. And some amongst them, O Bharata, became paralysed and some became deathly pale. During that terrible carnage resembling the slaughter of creatures at the end of the Yuga, in that deadly and fierce battle from which few could escape with life, the earth became drenched with gore and the earthy dust that had arisen disappeared in consequence of the showers of blood that fell and the swift currents of wind that blew over the field. So deep was that rain of blood that the wheels of cars sank to their naves. Thousands of infuriated elephants endued with great speed, O king, of thy army, their riders slain and limbs mangled, fled away, uttering cries of pain and crushing friendly ranks with their tread. Steeds destitute of riders and foot-soldiers also, O king, fled away, O monarch, from fear, struck with the shafts of Dhananjaya. Indeed, thy soldiers, with dishevelled hair and deprived of their coats of mail, with blood streaming out of their wounds, fled away in terror, leaving the field of battle. And some, deprived of the power of motion as if their lower limbs had been seized by alligators, remained on the field. And others concealed themselves behind and under the bodies of slain elephants Routing thy host thus, O king, Dhananjaya began to strike with terrible
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shafts the protectors of the ruler of the Sindhus with his arrowy showers, Karna and Drona's son and Kripa and Salya and Vrishasena and Duryodhana. So quick was he in the use of weapons that no one could mark when Arjuna took out his arrows, when he fixed them on the bowstring, when he stretched---the bow and let them off. Indeed, while striking the foe, his bow was seen incessantly drawn to a circle. His arrows also were seen incessantly issuing out of his bow and scattered in all directions. Then cutting off Karna's bow as also of Vrishasena's, Arjuna felled Salya's driver from his niche in the car, with a broad-headed arrow. With many arrows that foremost of victors, viz., Dhananjaya, then deeply pierced in that battle Kripa and Aswatthaman, related as uncle and nephew to each other. Sorely afflicting those mighty car-warriors of thy army thus, the son of Pandu took up a terrible arrow of fiery splendour. Looking like the thunderbolt of Indra, and inspired with divine mantras, that formidable arrow was capable of bearing any strain. And it had been always worshipped with incense and garlands of flowers. Duly inspiring it (by mantras) with the force of the thunderbolt, that descendant, of Kuru, viz., the mighty-armed Arjuna, fixed it on Gandiva. When that arrow of fiery effulgence was fixed on the bowstring, loud shouts, O king, were heard in the welkin. Then Janardana, once more addressing Arjuna, quickly said, 'O Dhananjaya, quickly cut off the head of the wicked-souled ruler of the Sindhus! The sun is about to get at the mountain of Asta. Listen, however, to the words I say about the slaughter of Jayadratha. The father of Jayadratha is Vriddhakshatra known all over the world. It was after a long time that he got Jayadratha, that slayer of foes, for his son. (At the birth of the son) an incorporeal and invisible voice, deep as that of the clouds or of the drum, said unto king Vriddhakshatra. 'This thy son, O lord, amongst men in this world will become worthy of the two races (viz., the Solar and the Lunar) in respect of blood, behaviour, self-restraint and the other attributes. He will become one of the foremost of Kshatriyas, and will always be worshipped by heroes. But while struggling in battle, some bull among the Kshatriyas, some conspicuous person in the world, excited with wrath, will cut off this one's head.' That chastiser of foes, viz., the (old) ruler of the Sindhus, hearing these words, reflected for sometime. Overwhelmed with affection for his son, he summoned all his kinsmen and said, 'That man who will cause the head of my son to fall on the earth while the latter, struggling in battle, will be bearing a great burthen, I say that the head of that man will certainly crack into a hundred pieces.' Having spoken these words and installed Jayadratha on the throne, Vriddhakshatra, repairing to the woods, devoted himself to ascetic austerities. Endued with great energy, he is still engaged in the observance of the austerest of penances outside this very Samantapanchaka, O ape-bannered one! Therefore, cutting off Jayadratha's head in this dreadful battle, thou, O slayer of foes, shouldst, O Bharata, by thy fierce celestial weapon of wonderful feats, quickly throw that head decked with car-rings upon the lap of Vriddhakshatra himself, O younger brother of the son of the Wind-god! If thou fellest Jayadratha's head on
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the earth, thy own head, then, without doubt, will crack into a hundred fragments. Aided by thy celestial weapon, do thee deed in such a way that the lord of earth viz., the old Sindhu king, may not know that it is done. Truly, O Arjuna, there is nothing in the three worlds which thou canst not achieve or do, O son of Vasava!' Hearing these words (of Krishna), Dhananjaya, licking the corners of his mouth, quickly shot that arrow which he had taken up for Jayadratha's slaughter, that arrow, viz., whose touch resembled that of Indra's thunder, which was inspired with mantras and converted into a celestial weapon, which was capable of bearing any strain, and which had always been worshipped with incense and garlands. That shaft, sped from Gandiva, coursing swiftly, snatched Jayadratha's head away, like a hawk snatching away a smaller bird from the top of a tree. Dhananjaya, then, with his shafts, sent that head along in the welkin (without allowing it to fall down). For grieving his foes and gladdening his friends, the son of Pandu, by shooting his shafts repeatedly at it, sent that head outside the limits of Samantapanchaka. Meanwhile, king Vriddhakshatra, the father of thy son-in-law, endued with great energy, was, O sire, engaged in his evening prayers. Decked with black locks and adorned with ear-rings, that head of Jayadratha was thrown upon Vriddhakshatra's lap, as the latter was saying his prayers in a sitting posture. Thus thrown on his lap, that head decked with car-rings, O chastiser of foes, was not seen by king Vriddhakshatra. As the latter, however, stood up after finishing his prayers it suddenly fell down on the earth. And as the head of Jayadratha fell down on the earth, the head of Vriddhakshatra, O chastiser of foes, cracked into a hundred pieces. At the sight of this, all creatures were filled with wonder. And all of them applauded Vasudeva and the mighty Vibhatsu.
"After, O king, the ruler of the Sindhus had been slain by the diadem-decked Arjuna, that darkness, O bull of Bharata's race, was withdrawn by Vasudeva. Thy sons with their followers, O king, thus, came to know subsequently that the darkness, they had seen, had all been an illusion produced by Vasudeva. Even thus, O king, was thy son-in-law, the ruler of the Sindhus, having caused eight Akshauhinis to be slaughtered, himself slain by Partha of inconceivable energy. Beholding Jayadratha, the ruler of the Sindhus slain, tears of sorrow fell from the eyes of thy sons. After Jayadratha, O king, had been slain by Partha, Kesava blew his conch and that scorcher of foes, viz., the mighty-armed Arjuna also blew his; Bhimasena also, in that battle, as if for sending a message to Yudhishthira, filled the welkin with a tremendous leonine shout. Yudhishthira, the son of Dharma, bearing that tremendous shout understood that the ruler of the Sindhus had been slain by the high-souled Phalguna. With sounds of drums and other instruments he gladdened the warriors of his own army, and proceeded against the son of Bharadwaja from desire of battle. Then commenced, O king, after the sun had set, a fierce battle between Drona and the Somakas, that made the very hair stand on end. Desirous of slaying him, those mighty car-warriors after the fall of Jayadratha, fought with the
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son of Bharadwaja, exerting themselves to their utmost. Indeed, the Pandavas, having got the victory by slaying the ruler of the Sindhus fought with Drona, intoxicated with success. Arjuna, also, O king, having slain king Jayadratha, fought with many mighty car-warriors of thy army. Indeed, that hero decked with diadem and garlands, having accomplished his former vow, began to destroy his foes like the chief of the celestials destroying the Danavas, or the sun destroying darkness.'

marți, 17 aprilie 2018

"Narada said,


"Narada said, 'The helpless lady, suppressing her arrow within her own self, addressed, with joined hands, the Lord of the creation, bending with humility like a creeper. And she said, O foremost of speakers, created by thee how shall I, being a female, do such a cruel and evil act knowing it to be cruel and evil? I fear unrighteousness greatly. O divine Lord, be inclined to grace. Sons and friends and brothers and sires and husbands are always dear; (if I kill them), they who will suffer these losses will seek to injure me. It is this that I fear. The tears that will fall from the eyes
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of woe-stricken and weeping persons, inspire me with fear, O Lord! I seek thy protection. O divine Being, O foremost of gods, I will not go to Yama's abode. O boon-giving one, I implore thee or thy grace, bowing my head and joining my palms. O grandsire of the worlds, I solicit (the accomplishment of even) this wish at thy hands! 1 I desire, with thy permission, to undergo ascetic penances, O Lord of created things! Grant me this boon, O divine Being, O great master! Permitted by thee, I will go to the excellent asylum of Dhenuka! Engaged in adoring Thyself, I will undergo the severest austerities there. I will not be able, O Lord of the gods, to take away the dear life-breaths of living creatures weeping in sorrow. Protect me from unrighteousness.'
"Brahma said, 'O Death, thou hast been intended for achieving the destruction of creatures. Go, destroy all creatures, thou needst have no scruples. Even this must be. It cannot be otherwise. Do but my behest. Nobody in the world will find any fault in thee.'
"Narada continued, 'Thus addressed, that lady became very much affrighted. 2 Looking at Brahma's face, she stood with joined hands. From desire of doing good to creatures, she did not set her heart upon their destruction. The divine Brahma also, that Lord of the lord of all creatures, remained silent. And soon the Grandsire became gratified in his own self. And casting his eyes upon all the creation he smiled. And, thereupon, creatures continued to live as before i.e., unaffected by premature death. And upon that, invincible and illustrious Lord having shaken off his wrath, that damsel left the presence of that wise Deity. Leaving Brahma, without having agreed to destroy creatures, the damsel called Death speedily proceeded to the retreat called Dhenuka. Arrived there, she practised excellent and highly austere vows. And she stood there on one leg for sixteen billions of years, and five times ten billions also, through pity for living creatures and from desire of doing them good, and all the time restraining her senses from their favourite objects. And once again, O king she stood there on one leg for one and twenty times ten billions of years. And then she wandered for ten times ten thousand billions of years with the creatures (of the earth), Next, repairing to the sacred Nanda that was full of cool and pure water, she passed in those waters eight thousand years. Observing rigid vows at Nanda, she cleansed herself of all her sins. Then she proceeded, first of all, to the sacred Kausiki, observant of vow. Living upon air and water only, she practised austerities there, Repairing then to Panchaganga and next to Vetasa, that cleansed damsel, by diverse kinds of especial austerities, emaciated her own body. Going next to the Ganga and thence to the great Meru, she remained
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motionless like a stone, suspending her life-breath. Thence going to the top of Himavat, where the gods had performed their sacrifice (in days of yore), that amiable and auspicious girl remained for a billion of years standing on the toe only of her feet. Wending then to Pushkara, and Gokarna, and Naimisha, and Malaya, she emaciated her body, practising austerities agreeable to her heart. Without acknowledging any other god, with steady devotion to the Grandsire, she lived and gratified the Grandsire in every way. Then the unchangeable Creator of the worlds, gratified said unto her, with a softened and delighted heart. 'O Death, why dost thou undergo ascetic austerities so severe?' Thus addressed, Death said unto the divine Grandsire, 'Creatures, O Lord, are living in health. They do not injure one another even by words. I shall not be able to slay them. O Lord, I desire even this boon at thy hands. I fear sin, and it is for this that I am engaged in ascetic austerities. O blessed one, undertake to remove for ever my fears. I am a woman, in distress, and without fault. I beg thee, be thou protector. Unto her the divine Brahman acquainted with the past, the present and the future, said, 'Thou shalt commit no sin, O Death, by slaying these creatures. My words can never be futile., O amiable one! Therefore, O auspicious damsel, slay these creatures of four kinds. Eternal virtue shall always be thine. That Regent of the world, viz., Yama, and the diverse disease shall become thy helpmates. I myself and all the gods will grant thee boons, so that, freed from sin and perfectly cleansed, thou mayst even acquire glory.' Thus addressed, O monarch, that lady, joining her hands, once more said these words, seeking her grace by bowing down unto him with her head, If, O Lord, this is not to be without me, then thy command I place upon my head. Listen, however, to what I say, Let covetousness, wrath, malice, jealousy, quarrel, folly and shamelessness, and other stern passions tear the bodies of all embodied creatures.'
"Brahman said, 'It will be, O Death, as thou sayest. Meanwhile, slay creatures duly. Sin shall not be thine, nor shall I seek to injure thee, O auspicious one. Those tear-drops of thine that are in my hands, even they will become diseases, springing from living creatures themselves. They will kill men; and if men are killed, sin shall not be thine. Therefore, do not fear, Indeed, sin shall not be thine. Devoted to righteousness, and observant of thy duty, thou shalt sway (all creatures). Therefore, take thou always the fives of these living creatures. Casting off both desire and wrath, take thou the life of all living creatures. Even thus will eternal virtue be thine. Sin will stay those that are of wicked behaviour. By doing my bidding cleanse thyself. It will be thine to sink them in their sins that are wicked. Therefore, cast off both desire and wrath, and kill these creatures endued with life.'
"Narada continued, 'That damsel, seeing that she was (persistently) called by the name of Death, feared (to act otherwise). And in terror also of Brahma's curse, she said, 'Yes!' Unable to do otherwise, she began, casting off desire and wrath, to take the lives of living creatures when the
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time came (for their dissolution). It is only living creatures that die. Diseases spring from living creatures themselves. Disease is the abnormal condition of creatures. They are pained by it. Therefore, indulge not in fruitless grief for creatures after they are dead. The senses, upon the death of creatures, go with the latter (to the other world), and achieving their (respective) functions, once more come back (with creatures when the latter are reborn). Thus all creatures, O lion among beings, the very gods included going, thither, have to act, like mortals. 1 The wind, that is awful, of terrible roars and great strength, omnipresent and endued with infinite energy, it is the wind that will rive the bodies of living creatures. It will, in this matter put forth no active energy, nor will it suspend its functions; (but do this naturally). Even all the gods have the appellation of mortals attached to them. Therefore, O lion among kings, do not grieve for thy son! Repairing to heaven, the son of thy body is passing his days in perpetual happiness, having obtained those delightful regions that are for heroes. Casting off all sorrows, he hath attained to the companionship of the righteous. Death hath been ordained by the Creator himself for all creatures! When their hour comes, creatures are destroyed duly. The death of creatures arises from the creatures themselves. Creatures kill themselves. Death doth not kill any one, armed with her bludgeon! Therefore, they that are wise, truly knowing death to be inevitable, because ordained by Brahma himself, never grieve for creatures that are dead. Knowing this death to be ordained by the Supreme God, cast off, without delay; thy grief for thy dead son!'
"Vyasa continued, 'Hearing these words of grave import spoken by Narada, king Akampana, addressing his friend, said, 'O illustrious one, O foremost of Rishi, my grief is gone, and I am contented. Hearing this history from thee, I am grateful to thee and I worship thee.' That foremost of superior Rishi, that celestial ascetic of immeasurable soul, thus addressed by the king, proceeded to the woods of Nandava. The frequent recital of this history for the hearing of others, as also the frequent hearing of this history, is regarded as cleansing, leading to fame and heaven and worthy of approbation. It enhanceth besides, the period of life. Having listened to this instructive story, cast off thy grief, O Yudhishthira, reflecting besides or, the duties of a Kshatriya and the high state (of blessedness) attainable by heroes. Abhimanyu, that mighty car-warrior, endued with mighty energy, having slain (numerous) foes before the gaze of all bowmen, hath attained to heaven. The great bowman, that mighty car-warrior, struggling on the field, hath fallen in the battle struck with sword and mace and dart, and bow. Sprung from Soma, he hath disappeared in the lunar essence, cleansed of all his impurities. Therefore, O son of Pandu, mustering all thy fortitude. thyself with thy brothers, without allowing your senses to be stupefied speedily set out, inflamed with
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rage, for battle.'"

vineri, 30 martie 2018

CEREREA COROANEI pentru reședință oficială în monumentul arhitectonic ’Casa Poporului’ supranumit Palatul Parlamentului



COROANA REGALĂ A POPORULUI ROMÂN cu sediul provizoriu în oraș Comănești str. Unirii nr. 61 jud. Bacău, prin REGELE POPORULUI ROMÂN ALTEȚA SA CELESTUL GHEORGHE-BOGDAN CEL ÎNȚELEPT VICTOR AJATASATRU, posesor și al numelui STOIAN GEORGE-BOGDAN, având calitățile de poet muzician jurisconsult fiziocrat Brahman, posesor al CI seria  --nr. -------, CNP 1-----------9, cu domiciliul în București str. Mehadia nr. -- bl. ---Sector 6 , prin CABINET PARTICULAR JURISCONSULT STOIAN GEORGE-BOGDAN cu sediul în Comănești str. Republicii bl. -- sc. - ap. -, prin prezenta formulăm


prin care vă rugăm respectuos să binevoiți să admiteți cererea noastră și să dispuneți repartizarea unui spațiu optim pentru reședință oficială în monumentul arhitectonic ’Casa Poporului’ supranumit Palatul Parlamentului instituției divine COROANA REGALĂ A POPORULUI ROMÂN, pentru a ne putea desfășura onorant într-un mediu protejat, sigur, solemn și monumental activitățile legitime prevăzute în Statutul instituției noastre.

În fapt, COROANA REGALĂ A POPORULUI ROMÂN este o instituție divină consociaționalistă descentralizată autonomă care promovează reprezintă apără respectă și fructifică drepturile și libertatea poporului român și ale indivizilor care compunem poporul român.
COROANA REGALĂ A POPORULUI ROMÂN își desfășoară activitatea printr-o spirală de instituții intrinseci active sau în curs de activare dintre care cele mai importante sunt următoarele:
COROANA REGALĂ A POPORULUI ROMÂN se edifică și se instituie prin Voia AutoCreatului și AtoateCreatorului Tată prin Lumina Dreptului Divin, a Drepturilor și Libertăților prevăzute în Convenția pentru apărarea Drepturilor Omului și a Libertăților fundamnetale, a altor legi internaționale și a drepturilor prevăzute în Constituția României, pe care le respectă.
În această lumină juridică și în baza Libertății de gândire, de conștiință și de religie, a Libertății de exprimare, a Libertății de întrunire și asociere, a Libertății de circulație, precum și a Dreptului la două grade de jurisdicție în materie penală, prevăzute în Art. 9, 10 și 11 și în Art. 2 din Protocolul nr. 4 și în Art. 2 din Protocolul nr. 7 din Convenția pentru apărarea Drepturilor Omului și a Libertăților fundamentale coroborate cu dispozițiile Art. 2 din Constituția României și din alte legi naturale în viguare COROANA REGALĂ A POPORULUI ROMÂN are dreptul să își desfășoare activitatea sacrală în mod liber și independent prin toate instituțiile pe care le edifică pentru a-și desfășura independent activitatea sacrală.
Prin Academia Inițiativelor Conceptuale Inovatoare desfașurăm activități academice superioare de cercetare-predare pentru elevarea conștiinței moral-juridice-științifice-religioase a indivizilor poporului român și a întregii umanități.
Prin Editura pentru Inteligență și Geniu edităm softuri, programe, sisteme, siteuri, conexiuni, cărți, jocuri, muzică, filme, evenimente, finanțe și alte proprietăți intelectuale pentru satisfacerea scopurilor declarate.
Prin Banca Regală de Investiții Depozit Credit desfășurăm activități bancare superioare pentru estetizarea infrastructurii spațiului public și privat, pentru satisfacerea digitală a tuturor nevoilor oamenilor, inclusiv prin reducerea deficitului de monedă sigură prin editarea digitală a monedei virtuale COROANA pentru achiziții, liberare, inmaginare și conservare valoare prin care efectuăm activități de investiții și credit, pentru combaterea pauperității și îmbunătățirea civilizației.
Prin Curtea Regală de Justiție desfașurăm activități judecătorești ca instanță independentă supranațională și internațională de judecată și pedepsire educativă a infracțiunilor de corupție și de criminalitate online și a altor cauze extraordinare penale, de mediere, de consiliere juridică, de autentificare, legalizare și anulare a contractelor, tratatelor și a altor înscrisuri naționale și internaționale.
Prin Parchetul Regal de pe lângă Curtea Regală de Justiție desfășurăm activități de urmărire și invinuire penală și combatare a infracționalității publice și online.
Prin Biserica Consociaționalistă Intergalactică desfășurăm activități religioase spirituale de armonizare și luminare spirituală, prin cercetarea și înțelegerea religiilor și cultelor, prin promovarea unui spirit pacifist de prietenie și fraternitate între practicanții tuturor religiilor și cultelor în vederea stabilirii și asigurării păcii și armoniei universale.
COROANA REGALĂ A POPORULUI ROMÂN este un capital de infinită valoare și importanță umană care îmbogățește poporul român și toți oamenii, fiind un dar divin.
În această lumină juridică pentru a ne desfășura activitatea în această lumină juridică și pentru amplificarea civilizației COROANA, prin Regele Poporului Român vă roagă să binevoiți să admiteți prezenta cerere și să ne acordați spațiul corespunzător necesar desfășurării cu excelență a tuturor activităților noastre, respectiv un spaíu pentru Birourile Coroanei care să includă sală de conferințe și un spațiu de rezidență pentru Rege, în monumentul arhitectonic Casa Poporului supranumit Palatul Parlamentului.
Având reședință oficială în monumentul arhitectonic Casa Poporului supranumit Palatul Parlamentului vom aduce în timp real emblematice îmbunătățiri întregului monument prin estetizarea sa arhitectonică monumentală prin construirea peste structura inițială a unui obelisc până la nori care va asigura spațiu pentru și mai multe activități regale superioare și o vibrație specială regenerantă în întreaga capitală.
Știința Economiei Politice este rafinată perpetuu de progresele tehnologice și din mediul online, aplicațiile ei de ultimă generație își fundamentează și ating scopurile prin principiul superproductivității supercirculației superrepartiției și superconsumului, care prevede cât mai multe nevoi satisfăcute prin capital realizat prin activități de credit în beneficiu trilateral (al debitorului, al creditorului și al societății umane) fără dobândă pentru persoanele fizice și cu dobândă legală pentru persoane juridice pentru amplificarea cheltuielilor în beneficiu public și privat, prin sacrificii, caritate și filantropie, prin stimularea superproducției inovative estetice prin superconsum bazat pe achiziții circulație repartiție credit, prin stimularea consumului individual și a cheltuielilor pentru un consum individual masiv, prin modernizarea și inovarea estetică a infrastructurii publice și private în vederea asigurării justiției păcii și siguranței capitalului, prin cele mai eficiente mijloace juridice, economice și științifice pentru asigurarea împlinirii și satisfacerii ușoare a nevoilor tuturor oamenilor și pentru siguranțaa și bunăstarea generală universală.
COROANA REGALĂ A POPORULUI ROMÂN este Capital pururi creator și producător de Capital în beneficiul întregii umanități.
În exercitarea activităților noastre regale vom angrena mereu multă resursă umană de inteligență, cultură și capacități superioare, profesioniști specialiști experți doctori savanți manageri ITiști juriști avocați procurori judecători jurisconsulți economiști artiști arhitecți inventatori clerici sau simpli muncitori din România și din întreaga lume pe care îi vom remunera în modul cel mai generos contribuind la creșterea economcă prin consum facilitat de amplificarea veniturilor contribuabililor și ale statului, și la bunăstarea generală.
În momentul în care toate instituțiile COROANEI REGALE A POPORULUI ROMÂN vor activa optim valoarea capitalului creat va avea curs supercalifragilistic în jurul valorii de 1 trilion de lei/secundă, preconizăm un teremen de 3 ani de la instalarea în monumentul arhitectonic Casa Poporului supranumit Palatul Parlamentului pentru a ajunge la acest moment.
COROANA REGALĂ A POPORULUI ROMÂN cooperează-colaborează cu toate instituțiile din România și din întreaga lume fiind mereu independentă.
Dreptul de proprietate intelectuală pentru instituția COROANA REGALĂ A POPORULUI ROMÂN este al Regelui Poporului Român Alteța Sa Celestul Gheorghe-Bogdan Cel Înțelept Victor Ajatasatru.
Regele a edificat prin asceză și studiul textelor sacre cu lumină iridescentă coroana sufletului său pe capul său în plan subtil, și din coroana sufletului său a edificat instituția divină COROANA pe care a extinso regal prin Voia Tatălui în instituția divină COROANA REGALĂ A POPORULUI ROMÂN cu instituțiie sale divine adiacente spre beneficiul perpetuu al poporului român și al întregii umanități.
Scopurile noastre pur nobile creează și atrag continuu resurse și capitaluri pentru a fi împlinite, pentru împlinirea scopurilor noastre se cuvine să avem reședință oficială în monumentul arhitectonic Casa Poporului supranumit Palatul Parlamentului, reședință care ne va asigura încrederea nelimitată a întregului popor și a întregii lumi care va vedea evenimentul pe bună dreptate ca pe un act divin, asigurându-ne o poziție de înaltă autoritate și putere divină pe care o vom fructifica metodic pentru beneficiul întregului corp social uman cu cea mai bună credință.
Vom colabora și coopera desigur în mod permanent cu Parlamentul, cu Guvernul, cu Președinția, cu Banca Națională a României, cu Biserica Ortodoxă Română, cu Academia și cu celelalte instituții ale României pentru estetizarea infrastructurii publice și private, pentru asigurarea unui nivel de trai excedent satisfăcător tuturor cetățenilor, în acest sens iluștii înalt luminați reprezentanți ai acestor instituții se cuvine dacă le place să binevoiască să adauge strălucire instituției noastre cu prezența liberă necondiționată activă și efectivă a excelențelor lor în Consiliul Regal al Coroanei alături de Rege.
Regele este un ornament al poporului român pururi o expresie a inspirației populare și a geniului autohton care adaogă plus valoare și virtute. Cunoscut, respectat și stimat ca poet muzician jurisconsult și politician în toate mediile elitei politice, juridice, artistice și universitare din România și din întreaga lume civilizată prin pseudonimul său literar Stoian G. Bogdan, Regele se bucură de o faimă regală tot mai strălucitoare care se tot amplifică floral incandescent judicios în fiecare secundă.
Admiterea prezentei cereri este un act spiritual cultural civilizator politic juridic științific umanist liberal social popular democrat economic natural artistic magic istoric necesar ale cărui efecte sunt aplaudate și preamărite de înțelepți pururi, act care este evident că Excelența voastră sunteți predestinat să-l realizați și pentru că va asigura mereu Excelenței voastre faimă bună, glorie, putere, virtute, noroc bun și aici și în ceruri, domnule Peședinte Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu - se cuvine să binevoiți să răspundeți pozitiv ultramanierat rugămintei noastre și să binevoiți să admiteți în lumina acestor motive superlative cererea noastră regală și să binevoiți să dispuneți repartizarea unui spațiu pentru reședință oficială în monumentul arhitectonic Casa Poporului supranumit Palatul Parlamentului instituției noastre divine Coroana Regală a Poporului Român pentru a ne putea desfășura onorant într-un mediu protejat, sigur, solemn și monumental împreună activitatea sacrală.

Asocierea celor mai buni cu cei mai buni este salutată de înțelepți.
Vă mulțumesc.

În drept, Art. 9, 10 și 11 și în Art. 2 din Protocolul nr. 4 și în Art. 2 din Protocolul nr. 7 din Convenția pentru apărarea Drepturilor Omului și a Libertăților fundamentale coroborate cu dispozițiile Art. 2 din Constituția României și din alte legi naturale în viguare.

(Depun aceast înscris în 3 exemplare semnate și ștampilate, unul pentru arhiva personală a Președintelui Senatului, unul pentru Arhiva Senatului și unul pentru a fi expus pentru public în Muzeul Național de Artă Contemporană)



miercuri, 28 februarie 2018

Dhritarashtra said,


Dhritarashtra said, "How, O Sanjaya, did Alamvusha resist in combat the heroic son of Arjuna smiting many of our mighty car-warriors in battle? And how also did that slayer of hostile heroes, viz., the son of Subhadra, fight with Rishyasringa's son? Tell me all this in detail, exactly as it happened in that fight. What also did Bhima, that foremost of car-warriors, and the Rakshasa Ghatotkacha, and Nakula, and Sahadeva and the mighty car-warrior Satyaki, and Dhananjaya, do with my troops in battle? Tell me all this truly, O Sanjaya, for thou art skilled (in narration)."
Sanjaya said, "I will presently describe to thee, O sire, the awful battle that took place between that foremost of the Rakshasas and the son of Subhadra. I will also describe to thee the prowess that Arjuna put forth in battle, and Bhimasena the son of Pandu and Nakula, and Sahadeva, as also the warriors of thy army headed by Bhishma and Drona, all of whom fearlessly achieved wonderful feats of diverse kinds, Alamvusha, uttering loud shouts and repeatedly roaring at Abhimanyu, rushed impetuously against that mighty car-warrior in battle, saying, 'Wait, Wait'--Abhimanyu also, repeatedly roaring like a lion, rushed with at great force at that mighty bowman, viz., the son of Rishyasringa, who was an implacable foe of the former's sire. Soon then those two foremost of car-warriors, man and Rakshasa, on their cars, encountered each other, like a god and Danava. That best of Rakshasa were endued with powers of illusion, while Phalguni's son was acquainted with celestial weapons. Then Abhimanyu, O king, pierced Rishyasringa's son in that battle with three sharp shafts and once more with five. Alamvusha, also, excited with wrath, speedily pierced Abhimanyu in the chest with nine shafts like a guide piercing an elephant with hooks. Then, O Bharata, that wanderer of the night, endued with great activity, afflicted Arjuna's son in that combat with a thousand arrows. Then Abhimanyu excited with rage, pierced that prince of the Rakshasas in his wide chest
p. 254
with nine straight shafts of great sharpness. Piercing through his body these penetrated into his very vitals. And that best of Rakshasas, his limbs mangled by them, looked beautiful like a mountain overgrown with flowering Kinsukas. Bearing those shafts of golden wings on his body, that mighty prince of Rakshasas looked radiant like a mountain on fire. Then the vindictive son of Rishyasringa, inflamed with wrath, covered Abhimanyu, who was equal unto Mahendra himself, with clouds of winged arrows. Those sharp shafts resembling the rods of Yama himself, shot by him, pierced Abhimanyu through and entered the earth. And similarly the gold-decked arrows shot by Arjuna's son, piercing Alamvusha through, entered the earth. The son of Subhadra then, in that battle, with his straight shafts, obliged the Rakshasa to turn his back upon the field, like Sakra repulsing Maya in days of old. That scorcher of foes, the Rakshasa, then, thus repulsed and struck repeatedly by his adversary, exhibited his great powers of illusion by causing a thick darkness to set in. Then all the combatants there, O king, were covered by that darkness. Neither could Abhimanyu be seen, nor could friends be distinguished from foes in that battle. Abhimanyu, however, beholding that thick and awful gloom, invoked into existence. O son of Kuru's race, the blazing solar weapon. Thereupon, O king, the universe once more became visible. And thus he neutralised the illusion of that wicked Rakshasa. Then that prince of men, excited with wrath and endued with great energy, covered that foremost of Rakshasa in that battle with many straight shafts. Diverse other kinds of illusion were conjured up there by that Rakshasa. Conversant with all weapons, the son of Phalguni however, neutralised them all. The Rakshasa then, his illusions all destroyed, and himself struck with shafts, abandoned his car even there, and fled away in great fear. After that Rakshasa addicted to unfair fight had been thus vanquished, the son of Arjuna began to grind thy troops in battle, like a juice-blind prince of wild elephants agitating a lake overgrown with lotus. 1 Then Bhishma the son of Santanu, beholding his troops routed, covered Subhadra's son with a thick shower of arrows. Then many mighty car-warriors of the Dhartarashtra army, standing in a ring round that single hero, began to strike him forcibly with their shafts. That hero then, who resembled his sire in prowess and who was equal to Vasudeva in valour and might,--that foremost of all wielders of weapons,--achieved diverse feats in that battle that were worthy of both his sire and maternal uncle. Then the heroic Dhananjaya, excited with wrath and desirous of rescuing his son, arrived at the spot where the latter was slaughtering thy troops as he came along. And similarly, O king, thy sire Devavrata in that battle approached Partha like Rahu approaching the sun. 2 Then thy sons, O monarch, supported by cars,
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elephants, and steeds, surrounded Bhishma in that battle and protected him from every side. And so also the Pandavas, O king, clad in mail and surrounding Dhananjaya, engaged in fierce battle, O bull of Bharata's race. Then Saradwat's son (Kripa), O king, pierced Arjuna who was staying in front of Bhishma, with five and twenty shafts. Thereupon, like a tiger attacking an elephant, Satyaki, approaching Kripa, pierced him with many whetted shafts from desire of doing what was agreeable to the Pandavas. Gautama in return, excited with wrath, quickly pierced him of Madhu's race in the chest with nine arrows winged with the feathers of the Kanka bird. Sini's grandson also, excited with wrath, and forcibly drawing his bow, quickly sped at him an arrow capable of taking his life. The fiery son of Drona, however, excited with wrath, cut in twain that arrow as it coursed impetuously towards Kripa, resembling Indra's bolt in effulgence. Thereupon that foremost of car-warriors, viz., Sini's grandson, abandoning Gautama, rushed in battle towards Drona's son like Rahu in the firmament against the Moon. Drona's son, however, O Bharata, cut Satyaki's bow in twain. After his bow had thus been cut off, the former began to strike the latter with his shafts. Satyaki then, taking up another bow capable of bearing a great strain and slaughtering the foe, struck Drona's son, O king, in the chest and arms with six shafts. Pierced therewith and feeling great pain, for a moment he was deprived of his senses, and he sat down on the terrace of his car, catching hold of his flag-staff. Regaining his consciousness then, the valiant son of Drona, excited with rage afflicted him of Vrishni's race in that battle, with one long shaft. That shaft, piercing Sini's grandson through, entered the earth like a vigorous young snake entering its hole in the season of spring. And with another broad-headed arrow, Drona's son in that battle cut off the excellent standard of Satyaki. And having achieved this feat he uttered a leonine roar. And once more, O Bharata, he covered his adversary with a shower of fierce shafts like the clouds, O king covering the Sun after summer is past, Satyaki also, O monarch, baffling that arrowy shower, soon covered the son of Drona with diverse showers of arrows That slayer of hostile heroes, viz., the grandson of Sini, freed from that arrowy shower like the Sun from the clouds, began to scorch the son of Drona (with his energy). Swelling with rage the mighty Satyaki once more covered his foe with a thousand arrows and uttered a loud shout. Beholding his son then thus afflicted like the Moon by Rahu, the valiant son of Bharadwaja rushed towards the grandson of Sini. Desirous, O king, of rescuing, his son who was afflicted by the Vrishni hero, Drona, in that great battle, pierced the latter with a shaft of exceeding sharpness. Satyaki then, abandoning the mighty car-warrior Aswatthaman, pierced Drona himself in that battle with twenty arrows of exceeding sharpness. Soon after, that scorcher of foes and mighty car-warrior, viz., Kunti's son of immeasurable soul, excited with wrath, rushed in that battle against Drona. Then Drona and Partha encountered each other in fierce combat like the planets Budha and Sukra,
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[paragraph continues] O king, in the firmament. 1


254:1 The Bengal reading vanya-nagendra is better than the Bombay reading gandha-nagendra.
254:2 In Hindu mythology, solar eclipses are caused by Rahu's attempts at swallowing the Sun.
256:1 Budha is Mercury, and Sukra is Venus.

vineri, 23 februarie 2018



De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă
Imaginea 1 - Neuron – Desen de Santiago Ramón y Cajal a unor neuroni din cerebelul porumbelului. (A) - exemplu de celule Purkinje bipolare, (B) - exemplu de celule granulare, multipolare.
Neuronii sunt o clasă de celule specifice pentru sistemul nervos. Neuronul este o celulă adaptată la recepționarea și transmiterea informației, unitatea elementară (celulară), embriologică, anatomică, funcțională, trofică și metabolică a sistemului nervos. Conceptul de neuroni, ca unitate principală a sistemului nervos a fost introdusă de anatomistul spaniol Santiago Ramón y Cajal. El a arătat ca neuronii sunt celule individuale care comunică între ele. O contribuție fundamentală la cunoașterea celulei nervoase în stare normală și patologică a constituit-o la vremea sa grandioasa monografie a lui Gheorghe Marinescu, La cellule nerveuse (Ed. Doin, Paris, 1909).
Componentele unui neuron:
a. dendrite
b. pericarion
c. nucleu
d. conul de emergență al axonului
e. teacă de mielină
f. celulă Schwann
g. strangulație Ranvier
h. butoni terminali
Neuronii au mărimi cuprinse între 100-200 μm și 4-8 μm. Au un corp celular (soma) și un număr mare de prelungiri.
Din punct de vedere funcțional neuronul se împarte în trei regiuni:
  • regiunea conductoare leagă regiunea receptoare de cea efectoare. Ea este formată din porțiunea axonului de la locul în care acesta iese din corpul celular hilul axonic până la arborizația sa. Aici au loc potențialele de acțiune prin sumarea potențialelor locale.
  • regiunea efectoare, informația (potențialul de acțiune) este recodificată aici sub formă chimică prin neurotransmițători și transmisă prin sinapsa regiunii receptoare a următorului neuron.


Diagrama unui motoneuron cu axon cu teacă de milină tipic vertebratelor.
Neuronii au de obicei un singur nucleu mic, dispus central, care prezintă unul sau doi nucleoli. Aici este sintetizată o cantitate ridicată de ARN, iar cromatina este dispersată.
Ribozomii sunt asociați reticulului endoplasmatic rugos și formează substanța tigroidă (corpusculii Nissl). Corpii Nissl se găsesc în corpul celular și în porțiunea inițială a dendritelor, dar niciodată în axon. Ei au rol în metabolismul neuronal.
Reticulul endoplasmatic neted are rol în reglarea nivelului de ioni de calciu din neuron.
Microfilamentele, neurofilamentele și microtubulii formează citoscheletul neuronului. Trebuie menționat că neurofilamentele (asociate formează neurofibrilele) au rol mecanic, de susținere și în conducerea influxului nervos.
Mitocondriile se găsesc în corpul celular, dar majoritatea se concentrează în butonii terminali ai axonului, furnizând energie (sub formă de ATP) pentru transmiterea semnalului la nivelul sinaptic și pentru sinteza unor neurotransmițători.
Corpul celular și dendritele sunt învelite într-o membrană plasmatică, neurilema, cu o importanță deosebită în recepționarea și transmiterea semnalelor prin canalele ionice. Axonii prezintă axolema, care este învelită de trei teci: teaca de mielină (adera intim la axolema, rol de izolator electric), teaca Schwann (contine celule schwan) și teaca Henle (permeabilitate si rezistenta). Teaca de mielină este întreruptă la intervale de 80-600 μ de noduri Ranvier.


Chemical synapse schema cropped.jpg
După numărul de prelungiri:
  • neuroni multipolari, cu număr mare de prelungiri. De obicei au o formă stelată, cu nucleu mare și sferic, situat central. Pot fi neuroni senzitivi.
  • neuroni bipolari, cu două ramificații la extremități. Au formă fusiformă, iar nucleul este ovalar și de obicei excentric. Se găsesc de exemplu în retină.
  • neuroni pseudounipolari, cu o prelungire în formă de T: prelungirea inițială se desparte în două. Sunt sferici, cu nucleu mare, localizat central. Se găsesc în ganglionii rahidieni sau ganglionii spinali.
După funcționare:
  • neuroni senzitivi(receptori), care primesc excitațiile de la stimulii mediului extern - neuronii olfactivi, receptori termici, receptorii presiunii și receptorii durerii. Astfel de functii indeplinesc neuronii pseudounipolari si cei bipolari.
  • neuroni motori(efectori), care transmit impulsul nervos prin axon pană la organele efectoare (muschi, glande). Majoritatea neuronilor motori sunt multipolari.
  • neuroni de asociație(intercalari), care preiau informatia de la neuronii senzitivi, o analizeaza si elaboreaza o reactie de raspuns, pe care o transmit neuronilor motori.
  • neuroni secretori - neuronii hipotalamusului, care secretă neurohormoni.

Proprietăți funcționale

Excitabilitatea este proprietatea de a intra în activitate sub acțiunea unui stimul. Membrana joacă un rol esențial prin canalele sale ionice care se deschid sau se închid în funcție de modificările de energie din preajma membranei.
Conductibilitatea este proprietatea de a conduce impulsurile. Această conducere se realizează diferit în fibrele mielinice și amielinice, cele mielinice fiind mai rapide (60–120 m/s în cele mai groase, 3–14 m/s în cele mai subțiri; iar în cele amielinice 0.5–2 m/s).
Degenerescența se referă la degradarea neuronului în condiții de lezare serioasă a axonului.
Regenerarea este proprietatea de a se reface după anumite lezări.
Activitatea sinaptică se referă la codarea chimică a informației și transmiterea acesteia prin sinapse.


Neuronii comunică între ei prin sinapse. Axonul terminal al unei celule nervoase intră în contact cu terminația dendritică a unui alt neuron. Neuronii precum celulele Purkinje pot avea peste 1000 de ramificații dendritice, făcând conexiuni cu alte zeci de mii de celule.
Sinapsele pot fi excitatorii sau inhibitorii.
În creierul uman există un număr imens de neuroni,formând un număr imens de sinapse. Fiecare neuron din cele 16-18 miliarde(deși unii specialiști susțin existenta a 40 de miliarde,sau și mai exagerat,100 de miliarde) are în medie 7 000 de conexiuni sinaptice cu ceilalți neuroni,sau pană la 10 mii de sinapse.Din păcate,din diferite motive,numărul sinapselor nu e aproximabil,ci doar speculabil.

joi, 8 februarie 2018

"The Holy One said

(Bhagavad Gita Chapter VI)

"The Holy One said,--'Regardless of fruit of action, he that performs the actions which should be performed, is a renouncer and devotee, and not one who discards the (sacrificial) fire, nor one that abstains from action. 1 That which has been called renunciation, know that, O son of Pandu, to be devotion, since nobody can be a devotee who has not renounced (all) resolves. 2 To the sage desirous of rising to devotion, action is said to be the means; and when he has risen to devotion, cessation of action is said to be the means. When one is no longer attached to the objects of the senses, nor to actions, and when one renounces all resolves, then is. One said to have risen to devotion. One should raise (his ) self by self; one should not degrade (his) self; for one's own self is one's friend, and one's own self is one's enemy. 3 To him (only) who has subjugated his self by his self is self a friend. But to him who has not subjugated his self, his self behaves inimically like an enemy. The soul of one who has subjugated his self and who is in the enjoyment of tranquillity, is steadily fixed (on itself) amid cold and heat, pleasure and pain, and also honour and dishonour. That ascetic is said to be devoted whose mind is satisfied with knowledge and experience, who hath no affection, who hath subjugated his senses, and to whom a sod, a stone and gold are alike. He, who views equally well-wishers, friends, foes, strangers that are indifferent to him, those who take part with both sides, those who are objects of aversion, those who are related (to him), those who are good, and those who are wicked, is distinguished (above all others). A devotee should always fix his mind on contemplation, remaining in a secluded place alone, restraining both mind and body, without expectations (of any kind), and without concern (with anything). 4 Erecting his seat immovably on a clean spot, not too high nor too low, and spreading over it a piece of cloth, a deer-skin, or blades of Kusa grass, and there seated on that seat, with mind fixed on one object, and restraining the functions of the heart and the senses, one should practise contemplation for the purification of self. Holding body, head, and neck
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even, unmoved and steady, and casting his glance on the tip of his nose, and without looking about in any of the different directions, with mind in tranquillity, freed from fear, observant of the practices of Brahmacharins, restraining the mind, with heart fixed on me, the devotee should sit down, regarding me as the object of his attainment. Thus applying his soul constantly, the devotee whose heart is restrained, attains to that tranquillity which culminates in final absorption and assimilation with me. Devotion is not one's, O Arjuna, who eateth much, nor one's who doth not eat at all; nor one's who is addicted to too much sleep, nor one's who is always awake, devotion that is destructive of misery is his who is temperate in food and amusements, who duly exerts himself temperately in all his works, and who is temperate in sleep and vigils. When one's heart, properly restrained, is fixed on one's own self, then, indifferent to all objects of desire, he is one called a devotee. 1 As a lamp in a windless spot doth not flicker, even that is the resemblance declared of a devotee whose heart hath been restrained and who applieth his self to abstraction. That (condition) in which the mind, restrained by practice of abstraction, taketh rest, in which beholding self by self, one is gratified within self; in which one experienceth that highest felicity which is beyond the (sphere of the) senses and which the understanding (only) can grasp, and fixed on which one never swerveth from the truth; acquiring which one regards no other acquisition greater than it, and abiding in which one is never moved by even the heaviest sorrow; that (Condition) should be known to be what is called devotion in which there is a severance of connection with pain. That devotion should be practised with perseverance and with an undesponding heart. 2 Renouncing all desires without exception that are born of resolves, restraining the group of the senses on all sides by mind alone, one should, by slow degrees, become quiescent (aided) by (his) understanding controlled by patience, and then directing his mind to self should think of nothing. 3 Wheresoever the mind, which is (by nature) restless and unsteady, may run, restraining it from those, one should direct it to self alone. Indeed, unto such a devotee whose mind is in tranquillity, whose passions have been suppressed, who hath become one with Brahma and who is free from sin, the highest felicity cometh (of his own accord). Thus applying his soul constantly (to abstraction), the devotee, freed from sin, easily obtaineth that highest happiness, viz., with Brahma. He who hath devoted his self to abstraction casting an equal eye everywhere, beholdeth his self in all creatures and all creatures in his self. Unto him who beholdeth me in everything and
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beholdeth everything in me. I am never lost and he also is never lost to me. 1 He who worshippeth me as abiding in all creatures, holding yet that all is one, is a devotee, and whatever mode of life he may lead, he liveth in me. That devotee, O Arjuna, who casteth an equal eye everywhere, regarding all things as his own self and the happiness and misery of others as his own, is deemed to be the best.'
"Arjuna said, 'This devotion by means of equanimity which thou hast declared, O slayer of Madhu,--on account of restlessness of the mind I do not see its stable presence. 2 O Krishna, the mind is restless, boisterous, perverse, and obstinate. Its restraint I regard to be as difficult of accomplishment as the restraint of the wind.'
"The Holy One said, 'Without doubt, O thou of mighty arms the mind is difficult of subjugation and is restless. With practice, however, O son of Kunti, and with the abandonment of desire, it can be controlled. It is my belief that by him whose mind is not restrained, devotion is difficult of acquisition. But by one whose mind is restrained and who is assiduous, it is capable of acquisition with the aid of means.'
"Arjuna said, 'Without assiduity, though endued with faith, and with mind shaken off from devotion, what is the end of him, O Krishna, who hath not earned success in devotion? Fallen off from both, 3 is he lost like a separated cloud or not, being as he is without refuge, O thou of mighty arms, and deluded on the path leading to Brahma? This my doubt, O Krishna, it behoveth thee to remove without leaving anything. Besides thee, no dispeller of this doubt is to be had. 4
"The Holy One said, 'O son of Pritha, neither here, nor hereafter, doth ruin exist for him, since none, O sire, who performs good (acts) comes by an evil end. Attaining to the regions reserved for those that perform meritorious acts and living there for many many years, he that hath fallen off from devotion taketh birth in the abode of those that art pious and endued with prosperity, or, he is born even in the family of devotees endued with intelligence. Indeed, a birth such as this is more difficult of acquisition in this world. There in those births he obtaineth contact with that Brahmic knowledge which was his in his former life; and from that point he striveth again, O descendant of Kuru, towards perfection. And although unwilling, he still worketh on in consequence of that same former practice of his. Even one that enquireth of devotion riseth above (the fruits of) the Divine Word.- 5 Striving with great efforts, the devotee, cleaned of all his sins, attaineth to perfection after many births,
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and then reacheth the supreme goal. The devotee is superior to ascetics engaged in austerities; he is esteemed to be superior to even the man of knowledge. The devotee is superior to those that are engaged in action. Therefore, become a devotee, O Arjuna. Even amongst all the devotees, he who, full of faith and with inner self resting on me, worshippeth me, is regarded by me to be the most devout."


67:1 Renouncer and devotee Sannyasin and Yogin.
67:2 Which spring from desire.
67:3 Self in this sloka is explained by the commentators as mind. The mind, unless controlled, cannot lead to devotion.
67:4 Chitta and atma are explained by the commentators as "mind and body."
68:1 Fixed on one's own self, i.e., withdrawn from all objects of sense. Thus Sankara.
68:2 Nischayena is explained by Sankara as equivalent to "with preservence" or steadily. Sreedhara explains it as equal to "with the certitude of knowledge acquired by instruction."
68:3 Mriti-grahitaya Buddhya is, as explained by Sankara and others "with understanding controlled by patience," K. T. Telang renders it "with firm resolve coupled with courage."
69:1 i.e. I am always visible to him, and he too is always within my sight and I am always kind to him.
69:2 i.e. how its stable existence may be secured, the mind being by nature ever restless.
69:3 Fallen off from both, i.e., from heaven (through work) and absorption into Brahma (through devotion).
69:4 Without leaving anything, i.e., entirely.
69:5 The Divine-Word i.e., the Vedas. So great is the efficacy of devotion that one merely enquiring of it transcends him who conforms to the rites of the Vedas.

vineri, 2 februarie 2018

"Sanjaya said


"Dhritarashtra said.---"Thou art intelligent, O Sanjaya, and acquainted with the truth (about everything). Thou hast duly given a description of the island in brief. Tell us now of the island in detail. Tell us now of the dimension of the expanse of land that lies in the portion looking like a hare. Thou mayst then speak of the portion resembling peepul tree."
Vaisampayana said,--"Thus addressed by the king, Sanjaya began to say.
"Sanjaya said,--'Stretching from east to west, are these six mountains that are equal 2 and that extend from the eastern to the western ocean. They are Himavat, Hemakuta, that best of mountains called Nishadha, Nila abounding with stones of lapis lazuli, Sweta white as the moon, and the mountains called Sringavat composed of all kinds of metals. 3 These are the six mountains, O king, which are always the resorts of Siddhas and Charanas. The space lying between each of these measures a thousand Yojanas, and thereon are many delightful kingdoms. And these divisions are called Varshas, O Bharata. In all those kingdoms reside creatures of diverse species. This (the land where we are) is in the Varsha that is called after Bharata. Next to it (northwards) is the Varsha called after Himavat. The land that is beyond Hemakuta is called Harivarsha, South of the Nila range and on the north of the Nishadha is a mountain, O king, called Malyavat that stretches from east to west. Beyond Malyavat northwards is the mountain called Gandhamadana. 4 Between these two (viz., Malyavat and Gandhamadana) is a globular mountain called Meru made of gold. Effulgent as the morning sun, it is like fire without smoke. 5 It is eighty-four thousand Yojanas high, and, O king, its depth also is eighty-four Yojanas. It standeth
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bearing the worlds above, below and transversely. Besides Meru are situated, O lord, these four islands, viz., Bhadraswa, and Ketumala, and Jamvudwipa otherwise called Bharata, and Uttar-Kuru which is the abode of persons who have achieved the merit of righteousness. The bird Sumukha, the son of Suparna, beholding that all the birds on Meru were of golden plumage, reflected that he should leave that mountain inasmuch as there was no difference between the good, middling, and bad birds. The foremost of luminaries, the sun, always circumambulates Meru, as also the moon with (his) attendant constellation, and the Wind-god too. The mountain, O king, is endued with celestial fruits and flowers, and it is covered all over with mansions made of furnished gold. There, on that mountain, O king, the celestials, the Gandharvas, the Asuras, and the Rakshasas, accompanied by the tribes of Apsaras, always sport. There Brahman, and Rudra, and also Sakra the chief of the celestials, assembled together, performed diverse kinds of sacrifices with plentiful gifts. Tumvuru, and Narada and Viswavasu, and the Hahas and the Huhus, repairing thither, adored the foremost of the celestials with diverse hymns. The high-souled seven Rishis, and Kasyapa the lord of creatures, repair thither, blessed be thou, on every parva day. 1 Upon the summit of that mountain, Usanas, otherwise called the Poet, sporteth with the Daityas (his disciples). 2 The jewels and gems (that we see) and all the mountains abounding in precious stones are of Meru. Therefrom a fourth part is enjoyed by the holy Kuvera. Only a sixteenth part of that wealth he giveth unto men. On the northern side of Meru is a delightful and excellent forest of Karnikaras, covered with the flowers of every season, 3 and occupying a range of hills. There the illustrious Pasupati himself, the creator of all things, surrounded by his celestial attendants and accompanied by Uma, sporteth bearing a chain of Karnikara flowers (on his neck) reaching down to his feet, and blazing with radiance with his three eyes resembling three risen suns. Him Siddhas truthful in speech, of excellent vows and austere ascetic penances, can behold. Indeed, Maheswara is incapable of being seen by persons of wicked conduct. From the summit of that mountain, like a stream of milk, O ruler of men, the sacred and auspicious Ganga, otherwise called Bhagirathi, adored by the most righteous, of universal form and immeasurable and issuing out with terrific noise, falleth with impetuous force on the delightful lake of Chandramas4 Indeed that sacred lake, like an ocean, hath been formed by Ganga herself. (While leaping from the mountains), Ganga, incapable of being supported by even the mountains, was held for a hundred thousand years by the bearer of Pinaka
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on his head. 1 On the western side of Meru, O king, is Ketumala2 And there also is Jamvukhanda. Both are great seats of humanity, O king. 3 There, O Bharata, the measure of human life is ten thousand years. The men are all of a golden complexion, and the women are like Apsaras. And all the residents are without sickness, without sorrow, and always cheerful. The men born there are of the effulgence of melted gold. On the summits of Gandhamadana, Kuvera the lord of the Guhyakas, with many Rakshasas and accompanied by tribes of Apsaras, passeth his time in joy. Besides Gandhamadana there are many smaller mountains and hills. The measure of human life there is eleven thousand years. There, O king, the men are cheerful, and endued with great energy and great strength and the women are all of the complexion of the lotus and highly beautiful. Beyond Nila is (the Varsha called) Sweta, beyond Sweta is (the Varsha called) Hiranyaka. Beyond Hiranyaka is (the Varsha called) Airavata covered with provinces. The last Varsha in the (extreme) north and Bharata's Varsha in the (extreme) south are both, O king, of the form of a bow. These five Varshas (viz., Sweta, Hiranyaka, Elavrita, Harivarsha, and Haimavat-varsha) are in the middle, of which Elavrita exists in the very middle of all. Amongst these seven Varshas (the five already mentioned and Airavata and Bharata) that which is further north excels the one to its immediate south in respect of these attributes, viz., the period of life, stature, health, righteousness, pleasure, and profit. In these Varshas, O Bharata, creatures (though of diverse species) yet, live together. Thus, O king, is Earth covered with mountains. The huge mountains of Hemakuta are otherwise called Kailasa. There, O king, Vaisravana passeth his time in joy with his Guhyakas. Immediately to the north of Kailasa and near the mountains of Mainaka there is a huge and beautiful mountain called Manimaya endued with golden summits. Beside this mountain is a large, beautiful, crystal and delightful lake called Vindusaras with golden sands (on its beach). There king Bhagiratha, beholding Ganga (since) called after his own name, resided for many years. There may be seen innumerable sacrificial stakes made of gems, and Chaitya tree made of gold. It was there that he of a thousand eyes and great fame won (ascetic) success by performing sacrifices. There the Lord of all creatures, the eternal Creator of all the worlds, endued with supreme energy surrounded by his ghostly attendants, is adored. There Nara and Narayana, Brahman, and Manu, and Sthanu as the fifth, are (ever present). And there the celestial stream Ganga having three currents, 4 issuing out of the region of Brahman, first showed herself, and then dividing
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herself into seven streams, became Vaswokasara, Nalini, the sin-cleansing Saraswati, Jamvunadi, Sita, Ganga and Sindhu as the seventh. The Supreme Lord hath (himself) made the arrangement with reference to that inconceivable and celestial stream. It is there that 1 sacrifices have been performed (by gods and Rishis) on a thousand occasions after the end of the Yuga (when creation begins). As regards the Saraswati, in some parts (of her course) she becometh visible and in some parts not so. This celestial sevenfold Ganga is widely known over the three worlds. Rakshasas reside on Himavat, Guhyakas on Hemakuta, and serpents and Nagas on Nishadha, and ascetics on Gokarna. The Sweta mountains are said to be the abode of the celestial and the Asuras. The Gandharvas always reside on Nishadhas, and the regenerate Rishis on Nila. The mountains of Sringavat also are regarded as the resort of the celestials.
"'These then, O great king, are the seven Varshas of the world as they are divided. Diverse creatures, mobile 2 and immobile, are placed in them all. Diverse kinds of prosperity, both providential and human, are noticeable in them. They are incapable of being counted. Those desirous, however, of their own good believe (all this), I have now told thee of that delightful region (of land) of the form of a hare about which thou hadst asked me. At the extremities of that region are the two Varshas, viz., one on the north and the other on the south. Those two also have now been told to thee. Then again the two islands Naga-dwipa and Kasyapa-dwipa are the two ears of this region of the form of a hare. The beautiful mountains of Maleya, O king, having rocks like plates of copper, form another (prominent) part of Jamvudwipa that having its shape resembling a hare.'"


13:2 The Bombay text reads Varsha parvatas for parvatas samas.
13:3 For Pinaddha occurring in the Bengal texts, the Bombay edition reads Vichitra.
13:4 The Bengal texts add a line here which is properly omitted in the Bombay edition.
13:5 After the 10th occurs a line in the Bengal text which is evidently vicious.
14:1 Day of the full-moon and that of the new-moon.
14:2 The Bengal texts, except the Burdwan one, have divi for Daityas, of course, the latter reading is correct.
14:3 The Bombay text has Sarvatas (which is better) for Sarvata in the Bengal texts.
14:4 in the first line of 28, the Bengal texts read Sirasas (ablative) for Sikhhrat of the Bombay edition. In the last line of 29 also, the Bombay text has plavantiva-pravegena for the Bengal reading patatyajapravegena. No material difference of meaning arises if one or the other is accepted.
15:1 Alluding to the tradition of Siva's holding Ganga on his head and for which the great god is sometimes called Gangadhara.
15:2 This word occurs in various forms, Ketumala and Ketumali being two others.
15:3 The Bombay edition reads tu for cha after Jamvukhanda. The meaning becomes changed.
15:4 The sacred stream Ganga is believed to have three currents. In heaven the current is called Mandakini; on earth, it is called Ganga; and in the subterraneous world it is called Bhogavati.
16:1 The Bengal texts, excepting the Burdwan one, incorrectly read Sakram for Satram.
16:2 The correct reading is Gatimanti. Many of the Bengal texts incorrectly read matimanti, which is unmeaning.